Microcontrollers: what are they?

Microcontrollers are small, programmable devices that contain a microprocessor, memory, and input/output peripherals on a single integrated circuit, which means that they’re essentially basic miniature personal computers without a complex front-end
operating system.

They are designed to control small features of a larger component and are commonly used in various applications, including consumer electronics, automotive systems, industrial automation, and medical devices, among others.